Kalagguan Sin Adlaw Ashura Iban Pagpuasa Kaniya

Ashura

By Abulkhair As Shafie

In Adlaw ashura daing ha mga salaggu2 adlaw sin Islam ha karna mataud liyappasan iban miyulliya sin Allah daing ha mga kanabihan iban karasulan nya ha adlaw yn, damikyan liyagguh daisab sya sin Nabi natuh muhammad msan pa in kaunan sin Adlaw yn liyagguh sin dugaing agamah..

عن أبي هريرة قال: سئل رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم: أي الصلاة أفضل بعد المكتوبة؟قال: الصلاة في جوف الليل.قيل: ثم أي الصيام أفضل بعد رمضان؟قال:شهر الله الذي تدعونه المحرم.رواه أحمد و مسلم و أبو داود
Daing kan Abu huraira (ra) namung sya: Naasubu in Rasulullah (saw): unu sambahayang labi marayaw puas sin sambahayang 5 waktu? In jawab nya: sambahayang tungaan duum (tahadjud). Iban unu isab in puasa labi marayaw puas sin Ramadhan? In jawab nya: amuna in bulan hiyulmat sin Allah amuna in pagtawagun nyo siya Muharram.

عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت:كان يوم عاشوراء، يوما تصومه قريش في الجاهلية و كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يصومه فلما قدم المدينة صامه و أمر الناس بصيامه.فلما فرض رمضان قال: من شاء صامه و من شاء تركه.متفق عليه

Daing kan a’isha (ra) namung sya: In kaunan sin Adlaw Ashura, adlaw pagpuasahun siya sin bangsa quraish ha waktu sin jahiliyyah iban in kaunan sin Rasul (saw) pagpuasahun nya sya, na hasamantara nakakadtu na siya pa Madina piyuasa nya sya iban diyaak nya in mga manusya (sahabat) magpuasa knya. Ha samantara nawajib na in pagpuasa ha bulan Ramadhan in agih nya (Rasulullah): hisiyo2 in mabaya magpuasa siya sin ashura iban hisiyo2 isab in mabaya tinggalan nya sya.

عن بن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال: قدم النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم المدينة فرأى اليهود تصوم عاشوراء.فقال:ما هذا؟قالوا:يوم صالح، نجى الله فيه موسى و بني إسرائيل من عدوهم فصامه موسى فقال صلى الله عليه و سلم:أنا أحق بموسى منكم فصامه و أمر بصيامه. متفق عليه

Daing kan ibnu abbas (ra) namung sya: nakapanaw in Nabi Muhammad (saw) ha Madina na ki-ta nya in mga yahudi nagpupuasa ha adlaw ashura. In agi nya: Uno in adlaw ini? In jawab sin mga yahudi: Adlaw Marayaw, liyappasan sin Allah ha adlaw ini hi Musa (as) iban sin banu israel daing ha kontara nila, na pagpuasahun sya hi Musa. Na in Agi sin Rasul (saw): “Ako in labi tagakapatut kay Musa daing knyo” na piyuasa nya sya iban piyangdaak nya in pagpuasa knya.

عن أبي موسى الأشعري رضي الله عنه قال: كان يوم عاشوراء تعظمه اليهود و تتخذ عيدا فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم: صوموه أنتم. متفق عليه

Daing kan abu musa al-ash’ari (ra) namung sya: in kaunan sin adlaw ashura liyagguh sya sin mga yahudi iban hinang nila sya haylaya (festival), nagsabda in Rasul (saw): Puasaha nyo tuud siya.

*Pagpuasa ha adlaw hika siyam adlaw -Tasu’a- (9th of muharram)*

Natali sin mga sahabat in pagpuasa ha adlaw ashura bya sapantun magsibuh iban sin mga yahudi iban nasrani, adakala sumud ha pikilan nila in mga mga muslim nangsingudsingud knla maglagguh iban magpuasa ha adlaw yn, hiyulugan nila pikilan in Rasul sampay tiyayma yadtu sin Rasul ha hadith nya:

عن بن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال:لما صام رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يوم عاشوراء و أمر بصيامه قالوا:يا رسول الله إنه يوم تعظمه اليهود و النصارى..فقال: إذا كان العام المقبل- إن شاء الله- صمنا اليوم التاسع، قال:فلم يأت العام المقبل حتى توفي رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم.رواه مسلم و أبو داود. و في لفظ، قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم: لئن بقيت إلى قابل لأصومن التاسع: )يعني مع يوم عاشوراء( رواه أحمد و مسلم

Daing kan ibnu abbas (ra) namung sya: ha samantara piyuasa sin Rasul in adlaw ashura iban piyangdaak niya in pagpuasa knya, in agi nila (mga sahabat): yaa rasulullah, bunnal tuud in sya adlaw liyagguh sin mga yahudi iban nasrani.. in agi sin Rasul: apabila dumatung in tahun susungun (next year)-In shaa Allah- puasahun natuh in adlaw hikasiyam (9th of muharram), in agi hi ibnu abbas: na wala na dimatung in tahun susungun (next year) sampay nawapat na in Rasul.

Ha dugaing hadith:

Tantu apabila ako mabut pa tahun susungun (next year) tantu puasahun ko tuud in hikasiyam adlaw (9th of muharram).

و قد ذكر العلماء أن صيام عاشوراء على ثلاث مراتب

Sabunnal tuud nabangkil sin mga Ulama in pagpuasa Ashura ha 3 level:

١. صوم ثلاثة أيام: التاسع و العاشر و الحادي عشر
٢. صوم التاسع و العاشر
٣. صوم العاشر وحده

1. Puasahun in 3 adlaw: 9th, 10th iban 11th kasubangan sin bulan Muharram.

2. Puasahun in 9th iban 10th.

3. Puasahun in 10th kasubangan isa2 nya.
[Fiqhus Sunnah-415]

*Pahala niya*

عن أبي قتادة رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم سئل عن صيام يوم عاشوراء؟ فقال: يكفر السنة الماضية. رواه مسلم

Daing kan Abu qatadah bunnal tuud in Rasul (saw) naasubu siya ha tungud sin pagpuasa ha adlaw ashura? In jawab niya: Makakiparat (makapapas) sin dusa hangkatahun limabay.

note:

1. Pagpuasa kumugdan Ahad (9th of muharram/ nov. 2) Iban Isnin (ashura 10th of muharram/ nov 3)

2. In adlaw ashura liyagguh daisab sya sin mga Shii’a ha karna adlaw yn nashaheed hi Sayyiduna husain anak hi Sayyiduna Alih.. sampay magtawaf sila ha karbala magpatuh dugu. In mga parkala ini hiyaram sin Ahlussunnah wal jama’a. In lilingun natuh amuin kakahinang sin Nabi natuh muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.

Wallahu ‘alam bissawab!:)

The Fast of ‘Ashura

Some traditions are found in Sunni books to the effect that the Prophet (s.a.w.) on migrating to Medina found the Jews fasting on the 10th of Muharram. He asked them why, and was told: “It is an auspicious day; it is the day when God delivered the children of Israel from their enemy (i.e. Pharaoh); and, therefore, Moses fasted on that day.”

The Prophet (s.a.w.) said, “I am worthier of Moses than you are.” Thereupon, he fasted on that day and ordered (the Muslims) to fast.

1. al-Sahih of al-Bukhari, Vol.3; Egypt ed.; p.54

2. Mishkatul-Masabih; Delhi ed.; 1307 A.H.; p.l72

It is noted by the commentator of Mishkatul-Masabih that “it was in the second year, because in the first year the Prophet had arrived at Medina after ‘Ashura, in Rabi’ul-awwal.”

How much importance was this fast supposed to have may be judged from another tradition narrated in al-Sahih of al-Bukhari: “The Prophet (s.a.w.) ordered a man from the (tribe of) Aslam: Announce to the people that whoever has eaten should fast the rest of the day, and whoever has not eaten should fast (the whole day), because today is the ‘Ashura (10th day of Muharram).”

That very year the fast of Ramadan was ordained and the obligation to fast on ‘Ashura was abrogated, as has been claimed in other traditions narrated in the same book. Still, reportedly, it carries much importance as a voluntary fast.

Now let us look closely at these traditions:

First: The Jews had their own calendar and months. There is no logic in saying that they fasted on the 10th of Muharram – unless it could be proved that this date always coincided with a Jewish day of fast.

It was mentioned in my article, “Martyrdom of Imam Husayn and the Muslim and the Jewish Calendars” (Al-Serat, Vol. VI, No’s 3 & 4; Muharram 1401 Nov. 1980) that the first month of the Jews (Abib, later named Nisan) coincided with Rajab of the Arabs. W.O.E. Oesterley and Theodore H. Robinson have written that in Arabia “the most important of all the new-moon festivals was that which fell in the month of Rajab (sic), equivalent to the Hebrew month ‘Abib, for this was the time when the ancient Arabs celebrated the Spring festival.” (Hebrew Religion; S.P.C.K., London; 1955; p.128)

Probably, in ancient times the two branches of Abraham’s house followed the same system of intercalating an additional month 7 times in a cycle of 19 years. And in this way the 7th Jewish month, Tishri I, coincided with Muharram.

And the ‘Ashura of Muharram synchronized with 10th of Tishri I, the Jewish Day of Atonement – a day of fast. In that article, it was observed that the two calendars lost their synchronization when Islam, in the 9th year of hijra, disallowed intercalation.

But on deeper consideration it transpired that that parity was lost long before the advent of Islam, because the Arabs did not follow any mathematical calculation in their intercalation. That was why the Muharram of the 2nd year of Hijra began on 5th July, 623 C.E. (Al-Munjid, 21st ed.), months before Tishri I (which always coincides with September-October).

Clearly, ‘Ashura of Muharram in that year (or, for that matter, during the Prophet’s whole life at Medina) had no significance whatsoever for the Jews.

The question is: Why did they fast on that day?

Second: The Jewish Midrashic literature relates the 10th day of the 7th month (Yom Hakippurim – Day of Atonement) to the event of bringing the tablets of the Covenant from Mount Sinai, as Dr. Mishael Maswari-Caspi has written in his letter, quoted in my previous article, mentioned above.

The question is: If the Jews had wanted to keep the long-lost synchronization of Tishri I and Muharram in view, how was it that they forgot to narrate this tradition to the Prophet?

Third: The month in which God delivered the Israelites from Pharaoh was Abib (i.e. Rajab), as the Bible clearly says: “Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the Lord thy God: for in the month of Abib the Lord thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.” (Deut., 16:1)

The question is: How could the Jews transfer an event of Abib (originally coinciding with Rajab) to Muharram, in open defiance of their Torah?

And lastly here is a point to ponder for the Muslims: The Prophet (s.a.w.) was sent with a religion to abrogate all previous religions and shari’ah. How was it that he deigned to imitate the custom of the Jews?

It is clear from above-mentioned facts that the Jews had no reason at all to fast on ‘Ashura of Muharram at that period; and this story, built on that premise, is just that – a fiction. Obviously, it was invented by a narrator who only knew that once upon a time Muharram coincided with the Jews’ Tishri I; but was totally unaware of contemporary Jewish religion and culture.

One feels constrained to mention here that this and other such traditions were forged by camp-followers of the Umayyads, after the martyrdom of Imam Husayn, as a part of their campaign to turn the 10th of Muharram into a day of rejoicing.

These traditions are of the same genre as those which say that it was on the 10th of Muharram that Noah’s ark rested on Mount Arafat, the fire became cool and safe for Abraham, and Jesus ascended to the heaven. In the same category came the traditions exhorting the Muslims to treat ‘Ashura as a festival of joy, and to store one’s food-grain on this very day as it would increase one’s sustenance and bring the blessings of Allah to the household.

http://www.al-islam.org/al-serat/vol-8-no-3-4/fast-ashura-sayyid-saeed-akhtar-rizvi/fast-ashura

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